Analytical characterization of hemp (Cannabis sativa) seed oil from different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan
Cold-pressed oil content of Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds from three different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan ranged from 26.90 to 31.50%. Protein, fiber, ash, and moisture content were found to be 23.00–26.50, 17.00–20.52, 5.00–7.60, and 5.60–8.50%, respectively. Results of some other physical and chemical parameters of the oil were as follows: iodine value, 154.00–165.00; refractive index (40°C), 1.4698–1.4750; density (24°C), 0.9180–0.9270 mg ml −1 ; saponification value, 184.00–190.00; unsaponifiable matter, 0.70–1.25%; and color (1-in cell), 0.50–0.80 R+27.00–32.00 Y. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L h −1 , 120°C) of the nondegummed and degummed oils ranged from 1.35 to 1.72 h and from 1.20 to 1.49 h, respectively. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 3.50–4.18 and 0.95–1.43, respectively. The hemp oils investigated were found to contain high levels of linoleic acid, 56.50–60.50%, followed by α-linolenic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, and γ-linolenic acids: 16.85–20.00, 10.17–14.03, 5.75–8.27, 2.19–2.79, and 0.63–1.65%, respectively. Tocopherols (α, γ, and δ) in the nondegummed oils were found to be 54.02–60.40, 600.00–745.00, 35.00–45.60, respectively, and were reduced to 29.90–50.00, 590.00–640.00, and 30.40–39.50 mg kg −1 , respectively, after degumming. The results of the present analytical study, compared with those found in the typical literature on hempseed oils, showed C. sativa indigenous to Pakistan to be a potentially valuable nonconventional oilseed crop of comparable quality.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, The Wealth of India (A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products). Vol. II: Raw Materials, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 1962, pp. 58–65.
Qaiser, M., Cannabaceae, in Flora of West Pakistan, edited by E. Nasin and S.I. Ali, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, 1973, pp. 1–5.
Oomah, B.D., M. Busson, D.V. Godfrey, and J.C.G. Drover, Characteristics of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil, Food Chem. 76:33–43 (2002).
Bagei, E., L. Bruehl, K. Aitzetmüller, and Y. Altan, A Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol Content of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), Turk. J. Bot. 27:141–147 (2003).
Turner, C.E., M.A. ElSohly, and E.G. Boeren, Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents, J. Nat. Prod. 43:169–243 (1980).
Orhan, Ü., S. Kumenoglu, and B. Sener, GC-MS Analysis of the Seed Oil of Cannabis sativa L. Cultivated in Turkey, J. Fac. Pharm. Gazi Univ. 17:79–81 (2000).
Deferne, J.L., and D.W. Pate, Hemp Seed Oil: A Source of Valuable Essential Fatty Acids, J. Int. Hemp. Assn. 3:1, 4–7 (1996).
Grigoryev, S., Hemp Germplasm and Breeding Sticks in Aspects of Fatty Acid Profile and Tocopherols. Possible Usage in Medicine as Antioxidants, http://www.chanvreinfo.ch/info/en/rubrique19.html (accessed July 2005).
Ezeagu, I.E., C.C. Metges, J. Proll, K.J. Petzke, and V.A.J. Akinsoyinu, chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Some Wild-Gathered Tropical Plant Seeds, Food Nutr. Bull. 17:275–278 (1996).
Anwar, F., M. Ashraf, and M.I. Bhanger, Interprovenance Variation in the Composition of Moringa oleifera Oilseeds from Pakistan, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82:45–51 (2005).
Anwar, F., M.I. Bhanger, M.K.A. Nasir, and S. Ismail, Analytical Characterization of Salicornia bigelovii Seed Oil Cultivated in Pakistan, J. Agric. Food, Chem. 50:4210–4214 (2002).
Federation of Oils Seeds and Fats Association (FOSFA) International, Manual of the Federation of Oils Seeds and Fats Association, FOSFA International, London, 1982, p. 277.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Animal Feeding Stuffs—Determination of Nitrogen and Calculation of Crude Protein Content, ISO, Geneva, 1981, ISO Standard 5983.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Oilseed Residues—Determination of Total Ash, ISO, Geneva, 1977, ISO Standard 749.
American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS). Official and Recommended Practices of the AOCS, 5th edn., AOCS Press, Champaign, 1997.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 7th rev. edn., edited by C. Paquot and A. Hautfenne, Blackwell Scientific, London, 1987.
Anwar, F., M.I. Bhanger, and T.G. Kazi, Relationships of Rancimat and AOM Values at Varying Temperatures for Several Oils and Fats, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80:151–155 (2003).
Thompson, J.N., and G. Hatina, Determination of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Foods and Tissues by HPLC, J. Liquid Chromatogr. 2:327–344 (1979).
Mölleken H., R. Mothes, and S. Dudek, Quality of Hemp Fruits and Hemp Oil in Relation to the Maturity of the Fruits, Bioresour. Hemp (Wolfsburg): 13–16, www.nova-institut. de (accessed July 2000).
Pritchard, J.L.R., Analysis and Properties of Oilseeds, in Analysis of Oilseeds, Fats and Fatty Foods, edited by J.B. Rossel and J.L.R. Pritchard, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 1991, pp. 39–102.
Rossell, J.B., Vegetable Oil and Fats, in Analysis of Oilseeds, Fats and Fatty Foods, edited by J.B. Rossell and J.L.R. Pritchard, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 1991, pp. 261–319.
Yoon, S.H., S.K. Kim, M.G. Shin, and K.H. Kim, Corporative Study of Physical Methods for Lipid Oxidation Measurement, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68:1487–1489 (1985).
Callaway, J.C., T. Tennilä, and D.W. Pate, Occurrence of “Omega-3” Stearidonic Acid (cis-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid) in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed, J. Int. Hemp Assn. 3:61–63 (1996).
Yazicioglu, T., and A. Karaali, On the Fatty Acid Composition of Turkish Vegetable Oils, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 85:23–30 (1983), reprinted in Die Datenbank Samenfette/Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (SOFA). Möglichkeiten der Suche nach ungewöhnlichen Fettsäuren und deren Teilstrukturen im Pflazenreich, edited by K. Aitzetmüller, B. Matthäus, and M. Schmitz-Peters, Renewable Resources Series, Agency for Renewable Resources, Gülzow, Germany, 2001, Vol. 18, pp. 116–124.
Kuhn, M., Agric. Biol. Res. 50:26–31 (1997); reprinted in Die Datenbank Samenfette/Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (SOFA). Möglichkeiten der Suche nach ungewöhlnlichen Fettsäuren und deren Teilstrukturen im Pflazenreich, edited by K. Aitzetmüller, B. Matthäus, and M. Schmitz-Peters, Renewable Resources Series, Agency for Renewable Resources, Gülzow, Germany, 2001, Vol. 18, pp. 116–124.
Mölleken, H., and R.R. Theimer, Survey of Minor Fatty Acids in Cannabis sativa L. Fruits of Various Origins, J. Int. Hemp Assn. 4:13–17 (1997).
Mehmedic, Z., Actes du Congress International “Chevreul” pour l’Etude des Corps Gras. Tome 1, presented at the Premier Congress Eurolipid Angers, June, 6–9, 1989.
Cold-pressed oil content of Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds from three different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan ranged from 26.90 to 31.50%. Protein, fiber